A century later, during the French and Indian Wars the British defeated the French and took control of all of northeast America. The victory was largely thanks to the Iroquois allying themselves with the British and in 1763 all the new British Territory, extending as far as the Mississippi, was declared an Indian reserve. This was short-lived however, the Iroquois again allied themselves with the British during the War of Independence, and in the reprisals entire communities were wiped out and much of their land was deeded to the revolutionary war veterans.
George Washington was sworn in as the republic’s first president in 1789 in New York City. By 1830 the population had exploded to 250,000, but mass immigration did not start until the 1840s, with the arrival of the Irish. By 1880 the population was 1.2 million.
With this abundant labour, vast natural resources and unfettered capitalism New York, and the other Mid-Atlantic States, became one of the most industrialised regions in the world. Great cities developed including New York, New York… king of the hill, top of the heap.